Effa Manley

Effa Manley was the brains of the Negro League’s Newark Eagles. Effa and her husband Abe organized the Brooklyn Eagles in 1935, but bought the Newark Dodgers the following year and renamed them the Eagles. Under her watchful eyes, the well-paid Eagles became one of the best-known Negro League teams as they traveled proudly in their $15,000 Flexible Clipper bus. The Eagles won the league championship and Black World Series in 1946 under the guidance of player-manager Biz Mackey. Soon after Jackie Robinson broke the color line in 1947, Manley lost the services of Larry DobyMonte Irvin, and Don Newcombe. She spoke out against the raiding of Negro League teams by major league clubs without compensation, but despite her efforts, the Eagles had to disband in 1948.